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Viewing website implies consent to set cookies on your computer. Full details Swaledale and Arkengarthdale Archaeology Group
Registered Charitable Incorporated Organisation Number 1155775
SWAAG Honorary President:
Tim Laurie FSA

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 *****SWAAG_ID***** 272
 Date Entered 22/08/2011
 Updated on 11/11/2011
 Recorded by Stephen Eastmead
 Category SWAAG Site
 Record Type Archaeology
 Site Access Public Access Land
 Record Date 22/08/2011
 Location Mill Bottom Surrender Bridge
 Civil Parish Melbecks
 Brit. National Grid NY 99 00
 Altitude Between 320m and 370m
 Geology Relatively low lying area of moorland between Reeth High Moor to the west and Reeth Low Moor to the east. The moorland is generally poorly drained. The soil appears to be glacial till.
 Record Name Mill Bottom area near Surrender Bridge
 Record Description This is a triangular area of moorland bounded by the ford below Fore Gill Gate, Surrender Bridge and the confluence of Barney Beck and Bleaberry Gill. The area contains significant industrial archaeology relating to the lead mining industry, as well as an enclosure, cairns and coaxial field boundaries. No doubt other archaeological features are hidden in the heather.

The detail described below is indexed A to S, and is also shown on a map generated from GPS waypoints for the various features. See map images 1 to 3. The lead mining features are described first.

Image 2 and 4 shows the Surrender Smelt Mill complex. The main features are: Main Surrender Smelt Mill building (A) Image 5.

Grinding Mill and another small building (B) Image 6. Note the leat carrying water from the waterwheel race in the smelt mill to Barney Beck, passes directly under the Grinding Mill building.

Site of one of the former smelt mills (C) Image 7. There were 2 older smelt mills that were both demolished when the present mill was built in 1841. The former mills were built in 1674 and 1682. The site of the other mill is not know but could have been where the 1841 mill now stands.

Peathouse (D) peat drying shed approx 40 x 8 metres Image 8.

Site (E) where all the leats supplying water from the moorland is fed into the smelt mill Image 9. It is very likely that a wooden launder was used to channel the water into the smelt mill and onto the top of the waterwheel. There is an extensive network of banks and leats funnelling water across the moorland Image 10. The southern section leats are indexed with a G. In the northern section the leats are indexed with a J. In-between G and J is a wider area or wet moorland (dotted line). See Image 1.

Rectangular pond (F) at the top of a leat, sited close to the flue (purple line) Image 11.

In the northern section of the area close to Bleaberry Gill, is the entrance to Barras End Low level (R) Image 12 and the 'mine shop' nearby (Q) Image 13. Extending away from the level are extensive tips Image 14.

Beside one of the main tips begins a leat (J) Image 15 with an earth bank on the eastern edge, capturing all the water and channeling it around the hillside following the contours towards Surrender Smelt Mill. A smaller leat (J) is present further up the hillside.

Other archaeology: A substantial drystone wall enclosure (H) Images 16, 17 and 18, approximately 10m diameter and 2m wide. With an entrance facing south. To the west of the entrance is the remains of a wall (20m approx.) Image 19, and to the east of the entrance a much shorter wall (4-5m).

A possible cairn (S) NY 99243 00379 7-8m diameter Image 20.

A Cairn (N) NY 992198 00390 5m diameter Image 21.

A short wall remnant (M) stone scatter approx 2m wide. NY 99131 00393 Image 22.

A coaxial field system remnant (K) NY 99147 00400 Image 23.

A possible cairn (O) 3m diameter NY 99204 00396 Image 24.

A irregular ring of 11 stones many difficult to see in the long grass (P), ?archaeology ?random. NY 99197 00399 Image 25.

A coaxial field system remnant (L) which has been cut across at each end by a leat. NY 99354 00518 Image 26.

A naturally marked 'cup' stone NY 99365 00376 Image 27.

Additionally Image 28 shows the inside of the flue as it passes under the Low Row to Langthwaite road.

Image 29 Confluence of Barney Beck and Bleaberry Gill. Image 30 Barney Beck looking towards Surrender Bridge.

Surrender Smelt Mill is a scheduled monument. English Heritage's description can be read here.
 Image 1 ID 962         Click image to enlarge
 Image 1 Description Site Map
 Image 2 ID 963         Click image to enlarge
 Image 2 Description Site Map southern section
 Image 3 ID 964         Click image to enlarge
 Image 3 Description Site Map northern section
 Image 4 ID 965         Click image to enlarge
 Image 4 Description Surrender Bridge and Smelt Mill - Google Earth Image
 Image 5 ID 966         Click image to enlarge
 Image 5 Description Surrender Smelt Mill
 Image 6 ID 967         Click image to enlarge
 Image 6 Description Background Surrender Smelt Mill, middle left remains of Grinding House, foreground water leat from waterwheel race into Barney Beck.
 Image 7 ID 968         Click image to enlarge
 Image 7 Description Site of one of the 17C smelt mills.
 Image 8 ID 969         Click image to enlarge
 Image 8 Description Peathouse
 Image 9 ID 970         Click image to enlarge
 Image 9 Description View from where the leats end and a wooden launder would have carried water to the smelt mill's waterwheel.
 Image 10 ID 971         Click image to enlarge
 Image 10 Description One of the leats that carried water towards the smelt mill.
 Image 11 ID 973
 Image 11 Description Rectangular pond beside the flue.
 Image 12 ID 974
 Image 12 Description Barras Low Level
 Image 13 ID 975
 Image 13 Description Barras Mine 'shop or office'
 Image 14 ID 976
 Image 14 Description Barras Mine tips
 Image 15 ID 977
 Image 15 Description Leat beginning near the Barras Mine tips which extends around the contours eventually towards Surrender Smelt Mill.
 Image 16 ID 978
 Image 16 Description Drystone wall enclosure
 Image 17 ID 979
 Image 17 Description Drystone wall enclosure doorway
 Image 18 ID 980
 Image 18 Description Drystone wall enclosure - Google Earth view
 Image 19 ID 981
 Image 19 Description Drystone wall enclosure: abutting wall.
 Image 20 ID 983
 Image 20 Description Possible cairn (S)
 Image 21 ID 984
 Image 21 Description Cairn (N)
 Image 22 ID 985
 Image 22 Description Wall remnant (M)
 Image 23 ID 986
 Image 23 Description Coaxial Field System (K)
 Image 24 ID 987
 Image 24 Description Possible cairn (O)
 Image 25 ID 988
 Image 25 Description Irregular ring of 11 stones (P) many difficult to see in the long grass.
 Image 26 ID 989
 Image 26 Description Coaxial Field System (L)
 Image 27 ID 990
 Image 27 Description Natural 'cup' stone
 Image 28 ID 991
 Image 28 Description Flue as it passes under Low Row to Langthwaite road
 Image 29 ID 992
 Image 29 Description Confluence of Barney Beck (right) and Bleaberry Gill (left)
 Image 30 ID 993
 Image 30 Description Barney Beck looking towards Surrender Bridge.
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