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Viewing swaag.org website implies consent to set cookies on your computer. Full details Swaledale and Arkengarthdale Archaeology Group
Registered Charitable Incorporated Organisation Number 1155775
SWAAG Honorary President:
Tim Laurie FSA

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 *****SWAAG_ID***** 716
 Date Entered 13/04/2013
 Updated on 14/04/2013
 Recorded by Stephen Eastmead
 Category Stone structure
 Record Type Archaeology
 Site Access Private
 Record Date 13/04/2013
 Location Healaugh
 Civil Parish Reeth
 Brit. National Grid SE 017 990
 Altitude 205M
 Record Name Beehive quern top stone.
 Record Description Beehive quernstone found several years before in a house in Healaugh. Where and when it was originally found is unknown. The quernstone is now kept in a private garden above Healaugh.

The quernstone has a lop-sided asymmetrical shape similar to a horses hoof see image 10. There is a single hole for a handle which is conical in shape. The hopper is relatively large. It is made from a course millstone grit containing no crinoids or other fossils, but occasional pebbles up to 1cm.

Diameter: Ovoid 300mm - 330mm. Height varies between 160mm - 190mm. Hopper and Feed pipe are both off-centre. Hopper width ovoid 140mm - 150mm. Hopper Depth 60mm. Diameter of feed pipe 23mm. Handle hole ovoid and conical 30mm - 35mm diameter and 75mm deep. approx. The handle hole does not piece the feed pipe. The feed pipe gives the impression that it was mainly drill from the top, but later drilled from the bottom to complete the feed pipe.
 Dimensions See above
 Additional Notes The technology change from Saddle to Beehive querns is thought to have occurred locally in the 4C BC. This quern is probably made locally from millstone grit similar to that found in Arkengarthdale.

There is no apparent equivalent form for millstone grit top stones in D.A. Heslop's Patterns of Quern Production, Acquisition and Deposition, Yorkshire Archaeological Society Occasional Paper No. 5. Most hoppers appear to have a more conical shape to their hoppers whereas this quernstone has a more gradual 'bowl' shape.

Image 12 shows the larger quern found at the Healaugh excavation 1988-90.
 Image 1 ID 4363         Click image to enlarge
 Image 1 Description Drawing of a top stone of a Beehive quern found in Healaugh.
 Image 2 ID 4364         Click image to enlarge
 Image 2 Description Top stone of a Beehive quern found in Healaugh.
 Image 3 ID 4365         Click image to enlarge
 Image 3 Description Top stone of a Beehive quern found in Healaugh.
 Image 4 ID 4366         Click image to enlarge
 Image 4 Description Top stone of a Beehive quern found in Healaugh.
 Image 5 ID 4367         Click image to enlarge
 Image 5 Description Top stone of a Beehive quern found in Healaugh.
 Image 6 ID 4368         Click image to enlarge
 Image 6 Description Top stone of a Beehive quern found in Healaugh.
 Image 7 ID 4369         Click image to enlarge
 Image 7 Description Top stone of a Beehive quern found in Healaugh.
 Image 8 ID 4370         Click image to enlarge
 Image 8 Description Top stone of a Beehive quern found in Healaugh.
 Image 9 ID 4371         Click image to enlarge
 Image 9 Description Top stone of a Beehive quern found in Healaugh.
 Image 10 ID 4372         Click image to enlarge
 Image 10 Description Top stone of a Beehive quern found in Healaugh.
 Image 11 ID 4373
 Image 11 Description Top stone of a Beehive quern found in Healaugh.
 Image 12 ID 4374
 Image 12 Description Quern found during the 1988-90 excavation at Healaugh.
 Image 13 ID 4375
 Image 13 Description Quernstone found on Hagg Farm Fremington
 Image 14 ID 4376
 Image 14 Description Quernstone found on Hagg Farm Fremington
 Image 15 ID 4377
 Image 15 Description Quernstone found on Hagg Farm Fremington
 Image 16 ID 4378
 Image 16 Description Quernstone found on Hagg Farm Fremington. Note shallow handle hole.
 Image 17 ID 4379
 Image 17 Description Millstone found during excavation of Site 103 in 2012 at on Hagg Farm Fremington. Site 103 is a Roman-British settlement abandoned around AD 370.
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